Su consiglio di Francesco Celani (INFN di Frascati), metto bene in evidenza qui sul web un report sintetico di fonte NASA del 2009 (scaricabile in pdf dal data-base NASA)* che dimostra INEQUIVOCABILMENTE come la NASA abbia ben più di un mero interesse speculativo per le LENR: la NASA in varie occasioni ha effettuato e documentato repliche riuscite (e sempre più riuscite) dell'esperimento di Fleischmann e Pons. In altre parole LE LENR SONO UN FATTO A EVIDENZA SCIENTIFICA. Affermare il contrario a questo punto -- qualora non sia frutto di semplice ignoranza o di ingenuità scientista -- è segno di deliberato tentativo d'insabbiamento.
Gustave C. Fralick (Project Lead),
John D. Wrbanek, Susan Y. Wrbanek, Janis M. Niedra (ASRC) and Marc G. Millis
David J. Spry, Roger Meredith and Jim Mazor (TFOME/Sierra Lobo)
BACKGROUND: "Cold Fusion"?
- Martin Fleischmann
- Stanley Pons
- C + O2 → CO2 (4 eV)
Fission Power Reaction:
- D + D → T (1.01 MeV) + p (3.02 MeV)
- D + D → 3He (0.82 MeV) + n (2.45 MeV)
- D + D → 4He (73.7 keV)+ Ɣ (23.8 MeV)
- D + T → 4He (3.5 MeV) + n (14.1 MeV)
- D + 3He → 4He (3.6 MeV) + p (14.7 MeV)
- D = 2H, T = 3H
- Tested non-electrochemical variant of “Cold Fusion” – where Deuterium (D2° C) gas used with palladium (Pd) filter
- Used Pd filter from hydrogen purifier
- Gas is “loaded” and then “unloaded” from palladium, while monitoring purifier temperature and neutrons.
- Compared to Hydrogen gas as the experimental control.
- Published: Fralick, Decker, & Blue (1989) NASA TM-102430
- 15°C increase in purifier temperature consistently seen with D2 that was not seen with the H2 control when gasses were unloaded from the purifier.
- increase in purifier temperature consistently seen with D2 that was
- Neutron detector counts did not differ significantly (≤2σ) from background in any run (Monitored with BF3 w/ Polyethylene [“Snoopy”] detectors).
- Previous NASA experiment (Fralick, et al.; 1989) looked for neutrons (saw none) – but saw anomalous heating
- After 1989, Cold Fusion research evolved into research in “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR), primarily at U.S. Navy, DARPA & various Universities
- Some recent LENR theories suggest He-3,-4 generation or transmutations occurring in PdH/D is the cause of anomalous heating
- 2009: NASA IPP*-sponsored effort to:– Repeat the initial tests to investigate this anomalous heat– Apply GRC‟s instrumentation expertise to improve the diagnostics for this experiment– Establish credible framework for future work in LENR
APPROACH: 2009 Test Apparatus
- Johnson Matthey HP-25 hydrogen purifier
- Purifier Filter contains a ~50g heated Pd-25%Ag membrane
- Load Filter by flowing hydrogen gas into the purifier
- Unload Filter by pumping the gas out of the purifier into a sample bottle
- Turn off filter heater for a time when Loading & Unloading
- Monitor changes in temperature, neutron/gamma background
- Repeat with deuterium gas; Compare results
RESULTS (Preliminary): Temperatures vs. Time
- More loading/unloading data on the temperature evolution of the loading/unloading process should be collected
- Analysis of the gas samples collected should be performed to look for evidence of tritium or helium
- Mass spectrum analysis and optical emission spectrum analysis should be able to identify gas species in the samples
- Existence of either in the sample would indicate a nuclear origin for the anomalous heating
- Further examination of the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption in palladium should be pursued to fully quantify the extent of the observed heating effects
- Improve experiment controls:
- Upgrade Purifier heater control
- Improve loading/unloading process timing
- Fabricate in-house palladium samples
- Improve neutron and gamma radiation detection
- Fralick, Gustave C.; Decker, Arthur J. and Blue, James W.: “Results of an Attempt to Measure Increased Rates of the Reaction 2D + 2D → 3He + n in a Nonelectrochemical Cold Fusion Experiment” NASA TM-102430 (1989).
- Liu, Bin; Li, Xing Z.; Wei, Qing M.; Mueller, N.; Schoch, P. and Orhre, H.: “ 'Excess Heat' Induced by Deuterium Flux in Palladium Film” The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Yokohama, Japan, Nov. 27 – Dec. 2, 2005.
- Li, Xing Z.; Liu, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wei, Qing M.; Zhou, Rui and Yu, Zhi W.: “Correlation between abnormal deuterium flux and heat flow in a D/PD system” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 3095-3097 (2003).
- Li, Xing Z.; Wei, Qing M. and Liu, Bin: “A new simple formula for fusion cross- section of light nuclei” Nuc. Fusion 48 125003 (2008).
- Biberian, J.P. and Armanet, N.: “Excess Heat Production During Diffusion of Deuterium Through Palladium Tubes” 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals, Sicily, Italy, 2007.
P.S. Sul ruolo della NASA nella rivendicazione della scientificità delle LENR ho già pubblicato nel blog: