From: Michael McKubreSent: Thursday, March 23, 2006 10:38 PM
To: Camillo Franchini
Cc: Ubaldo Mastromatteo, Francesco Celani, Lino Daddi, Luca Gamberale, Sergio Focardi, Vincenzo Nassisi, Francesco Piantelli, Vittorio Violante, Ettore Ruberti, Vincenzo Iorio, Fulvio Frisone, Giancarlo Ruocco, Yasuhiro Iwamura, Yoshiaki Arata e molti altri ancora...
Subject: Re: cathode drop
You have placed me in a position of great trust, but I don't know the exact nature of either of your claims.
Before you elect me as moderator you should consider that I am already prejudiced. I know as an experimental fact that the pressure inside a closed Pd cathode under modest external electrolysis in a 1 Atm. environment can, should, will and does rise to values sufficient to exceed the yield strength of pure Pd*. I have measured these pressure up to 1000 Atm. (I think Arata has measured to 2000 Atm.) - both the limit of the pressure gauge not the limit of the effect. I have seen the D2 blisters in Pd (and H2 blisters in steel) caused by this effect. And I have deformed and exploded Arata DS cathodes in my laboratory at internal pressures that must have exceeded 300-400 M Pa (3000 - 4000 Atm.). The effect that Arata invented and used a long time ago to supply high purity H2 and D2 gases at high pressures really does work. Sometimes it works to well.
As it should work! The adsorbed intermediate D or H that results from cathodic discharge has an activity governed by the kinetic balance between the rate of creation (cathodic current density) and the rates of consumption in the two competing processes:
a) Molecule formation and bubble evolution; H + H -> H2 (or for D).
b) Atomic absorption; H ads -> H abs (or for D).
When the rate of step "a" is low (e.g. with the use of a recombination poison), and the current density high, the surface activity of H ads (and thus activity of H abs) can be very high indeed. In Arata's device this activity of H abs communicates directly with the inner wall and the molecular gas inside, so that at equilibrium the inner pressures become huge.
I don't know about Arata's exact wording below; I suspect some problems with translation. But I guarantee this. Arata knows exactly what is going on, what is causing the intense pressure and how to best use it. Arata is one of the most able men I have ever met. He is not always completely clear, but it is clear to me that he knows what he is talking about.
* In fact this is the reason that the electrolysis of bulk high purity Pd cannot produce sustained cold fusion effects, as I published in the proceedings of ICCF7.
** This is a difficult concept for thermodynamicists, but easy for kineticists. Think of two tall tanks, side-by-side, A open and B closed, connected by a pipe at the bottom. They start "empty" (i.e. filled with Air at 1 Atm.). Tank A (the adsorbed surface atoms) is filled with water from a tap at the top (the cathodic current) and emptied by a tap at the bottom (reaction "a"). Reaction "b" (the water that flows in the pipe) goes to fill the absorbed metal sites and (in Arata's DS cathodes) the void space inside. The gas pressure inside the Arata closed volume is the pressure in Tank B. As we decrease the flow of the tap pouring water out of Tank A into the air at 1 Atm., the height rises in Tank A. In the steady state both tanks will have the same pressure. Both must always and inevitably be greater than 1 Atm., and approach a limit of 1 Atm. from above as the size of the orifice at the bottom exceeds that of the inflow at the top The chemical potential of adsorbed atoms (height in A) will be equal to the chemical potential (fugacity) of the enclosed gas (pressure in B).
È parte di un documento del Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, CA) dove si parla di un generatore elettrolitico di Idrogeno ultra puro che può raggiungere una pressione di 40 atmosfere. Si tratta di un documento pubblicato in Analytical Chemistry nel 1970... ripeto, 1970!